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PTA230: Evidence Based Research

What You Will Learn


It includes: 

  • Evidence based practice resources.
  • Accessing databases post graduation.
  • Conducting a database search to find full text and/or scholarly articles.
  • Tips on reading research articles.

Check markCheck audio on your computer or have headphones ready.

Quality of Evidence



CASE STUDY: Observations on a single individual.

PRACTICE GUIDELINES: Care models developed by expert nursing researchers and validated by experts.

RANDOMIZED CONTROL TRIAL: An experiment in which two or more interventions, possibly including a control (or no) intervention, are compared by being randomly allocated to participants.

RESEARCH: An original, complete research study containing data collection, methodology, discussion of results, etc.

REVIEW: An article which summarizes a number of different studies and may draw conclusions about a particular intervention; an overview.

META-ANALYSIS: Uses statistical techniques in a systematic review to integrate the results of included studies. 

META-SYNTHESIS: Articles that indicate the presence of a qualitative methodology that integrates results from a number of different, but inter-related studies.

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW: A review of a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect and analyze data from the studies that are included in the review.

Evidence Based Research

1. Ask a searchable clinical question
2. Find the best evidence to answer the question
3. Appraise the evidence
4. Apply the evidence with clinical expertise, taking the patient's wants/needs into consideration
5. Evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the process

Evidence Based Research Using PubMed Central

Tips for Reading and Validating Research Articles

- You don't have to read the entire article start to finish. Look at the different sections independently. You will find some sections easier to understand and pull facts from then others. 

- Read critically. Is there any bias? Look at sample size or population to see how the data was collected and analyzed. 

- If you come across a word you aren't familiar with stop and look it up. Researchers use a lot of terminology that you might not yet be familiar with. 

- Look at the references to find additional research.